The following elements are typically tested in an oil analysis:
Shows wear on spacers, shims, washers, pistons on reciprocating engines, cases. On accessories, bearing cages, crankcases, housings, bushings, and some bearing surfaces.
Seals, dust, water and coolant leaks.
Oil additive, grease and water leaks.
Oil additives, grease and some bearings.
Plating metal, replacing silver in many newer engines, shows wear on piston rings, seals, cylinder walls and liners, bearing cages and coolant leaks due to chromatic corrosion inhibitors.
Present, in the form of an alloy, either bronze or brass therefore usually detected in tin for bronze alloy and zinc for brass. Shows wear on main, rod and thrust bearings, wrist pin bushings, thrust washers, oil coolers, gears, valves, turbo charger bushings, clutches disc plates and coolant leaks in copper heat exchangers. Copper levels can vary widely and should be ignored unless accompanied by elevated readings for any other metal on the presence of antifreeze. Copper is also used as an additive in some oil.
Shows a coolant problem
Shows wear on shafts, valve train components, cylinders, gears, liners, bearings and an indicator of rust present.
Overlay on main and rod bearings, turbocharger bearings, camshaft bearings and some bushings, is also a friction reducing agent in some oils.
Cases for accessories, component housings, also an oil additive.
Piston ring metals, Found in antifreeze formulas, also a friction reducing additive in some oils
Valves, blowers and exhaust leaks.
Chemical reaction between oil and oxygen causing oil to thicken and lose its lubricating properties. Caused mainly by high temperature operation and/or extended oil changes.
Shows a coolant problem.
Oil additives and coolant leaks.
Shows the presence of contamination by dirt or gasket material. Silicon is an oil antifoam agent, also found in grease, gaskets, and antifreeze.
Shows a coolant problem, possible salt water intrusion.
Present in all fuels. Excess creates acidic conditions causing corrosive wear to engine
Shows wear on pistons, bearings and bushings.
High speed steel alloy, contaminant metal in residual fuel.
Shows a coolant problem or could be condensate. Positive test indicates the presence of at least 0.5%contamination. This may lead to reduced oil lubrication ability and an increase in rust formation
Brass components, neoprene seals, grease, coolant leaks and oil additives.
Shows injector problems or internal diesel leakage. Positive test indicates the presence of at least 4% dilution of oil. This may lead to a reduction in oil viscosity and Lubrication.
Positive test for glycol indicates
the presence of at least .1% contamination. Any amount is undesirable and can lead to
accelerated bearing wear.
Indicates incorrect air mixture, residue of partially burned fuel that can thicken oil, deplete oil additives and eventually plug filters. Found only in engine samples.
SAE number of the oil.
TOTAL BASE NUMBER
Is the number that indicates the ability of the oil to fight acid formation.
Detects both metallic and non-metallic particle contamination larger than 7 to 10 microns in size.